Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is a simple, quick and inexpensive method that is used to sample superficial masses like those found in the neck and is usually performed in the outpatient clinic. It causes minimal trauma to the patient and carries virtually no risk of complications. Masses located within the region of the head and neck, including salivary gland and thyroid gland lesions can be readily diagnosed using this technique.
Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is also known as needle aspiration biopsy, fine needle aspiration biopsy, or fine needle aspiration. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a simple office procedure that requires a few minutes to complete. Fine needle aspiration cytology is the most widely accepted procedure for the diagnosis of any nodule (lump) or enlarged thyroid gland. The thyroid is a small butterfly-shaped gland, which rests in the lower neck. Its main function is to control your body's growth and metabolism. To control metabolism, your thyroid gland produces hormones (thyroxine [T4] and triiodothyronine [T3]).
A properly functioning thyroid will produce the right amount of hormones required to keep your body functioning normally. Fine needle aspiration cytology is considered to be an accurate and cost-effective test for assessing thyroid diseases. It is not a surgical procedure, but it helps to differentiate between a cancerous and noncancerous nodule and also to decide on the treatment. Your doctor may recommend FNAC to drain and analyze the fluid within the thyroid cysts (fluid-filled sacs).br>
What is fine needle aspiration cytology?br>
Fine needle aspiration cytology is a procedure in which a thin needle is inserted into your thyroid gland to collect a sample of thyroid cells and some amount of fluid. This is later examined under a microscope to determine if you have cancer, infection, or any other thyroid disease.br>
What is the significance of thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy?br>
Thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy is the only non-surgical method that can differentiate malignant and benign nodules in most, but not all, cases. The needle is placed into the nodule several times and cells are aspirated into a syringe. The cells are placed on a microscope slide, stained, and examined by a pathologist (a specialist doctor who identifies diseases by examining the tissue under a microscope). The nodule is then classified as non-diagnostic, benign, suspicious, or malignant.br>
Why should I have FNAC?br>br>
Your doctor may advise you to undergo FNAC for:br>br>
Making a diagnosis of the thyroid nodule.br>
Selecting a treatment for the thyroid nodule.br>
Draining a thyroid cyst, which is causing pain.br>
Injecting a medicine for making the recurrent cyst shrink.br>br>
How is FNAC done? br>
Fine needle aspiration cytology can be done in the hospital, clinic, or in your doctor's office. If your doctor can easily feel the thyroid nodule, he will carryout FNAC in his office. If the nodule cannot be easily detected or if the specimen has to be taken from some specific area within the nodule, the biopsy needle has to be placed correctly under the guidance of an ultrasound scan. You will not be given any anesthesia, but you may be given a sedative before the procedure, which will help you to relax. During this test, you will be asked to lie on your back. A pillow will be placed under your shoulders and your head will be tipped backwards. This position will push your thyroid gland forward and make it easier to do the FNAC.
The site will be cleaned using a sterile antiseptic solution. A thin needle will then be inserted into your thyroid for collecting a sample of thyroid cells and little fluid. The needle is then withdrawn quickly. Pressure is applied to the site to control the bleeding, and the site is covered with a bandage. The whole test takes about 5 to 10 minutes.